The conducted research shows that the EU-27 and the UK have a varied approach to electric scooters when it comes to law: some see them as means of micro-transportation or personal transport, others define them exclusively in their legislation (in a direct manner). In some countries electric scooters are not defined in legislation but other rules apply (e.g. rules on bicycles). Electric
scooters’ users are qualified either as pedestrians using scooters, drivers, or cyclists. The limit of
20 – 25 km/h of speed is a general benchmark. The rules on the access to pavement, pedestrian
zones, and pedestrian crossings vary among the Member States (some allow it, providing speed limits; others offer only the possibility of accessing bike paths or public roads). National legislation
also provides some other requirements, such as age limits for electric scooter users when riding
on a road or wearing protective equipment (e.g. helmet or safety vest). The research also proves
that the majority of Member States do not provide any special rules on driving licences or insurance
(generally not required when using electric scooters). Finally, the article addresses a seemingly
basic legal European framework on electric scooters and a possible harmonization by adopting the
Micromobility Directive.

All interested in this publication may find the full paper in the section Publications.