Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law

Volume 38, Issue 3, online 22 May 2020, pages: 289-304, DOI: 10.1080/02646811.2020.1759247

Renewable and citizen energy communities in the European Union: how (not) to regulate community energy in national laws and policies

Author: Maciej M. Sokołowski

M.M. Sokołowski (2020), "Renewable and citizen energy communities in the European Union: how (not) to regulate community energy in national laws and policies", Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law 38(3): 289-304, DOI: 10.1080/02646811.2020.1759247 | Google Scholar 


The paper covers regulating renewable energy communities (RECs) and citizen energy communities (CECs) within the European Union. It offers ideas regarding RECs: establish a register to tackle regulatory and administrative barriers, adopt RECs national/European goals, and introduce the exemplary role of national authorities in their promotion. It also discusses creating a separate support scheme for RECs (eg a tariff supporting small RECs and a separate tender for other RECs), brings elements of legal recognition of CECs (membership condition, operational condition and energy services condition), and answers whether renewable citizen energy communities are eligible under EU law (yes, they are).


energy law; EU law; Renewable Energy Directive II; Fourth Energy Directive; energy
regulation; community energy; renewable energy communities; citizen energy communities

1. Introduction
2. Renewable energy communities and enabling framework
3. Citizen energy communities and European recognition
4. Discussion: are renewable citizens energy communities eligible?
5. Conclusion: a regulatory carrot


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