This issue of Oxford Energy Forum (135) focused on the problems of decarbonizing heat in the European building sector. In this context, together with J. Sokołowski we examined the trajectory of change in Poland’s residential sector during the decarbonization process from the 1990s to 2022, highlighting how the Russian invasion of Ukraine may affect the process beyond 2022.

Based on our findings in our paper we provided three policy solutions to improve housing and heating conditions during the energy transition. Their application is not limited to Poland and may extend to other countries experiencing similar challenges.